What is the relationship between the average pitch (f0) and formant
frequencies produced by different speakers?
The information presented here was collected from two large vowel datasets,
and Barney (1952) and
Hillenbrand et al. (1995). This data comprises
productions from 215 unique speakers, 76 adult females, 78 adult
males, and 61 children of either sex.
Adult males (blue) tend to produce vowels with lower formant
frequencies (FFs) and lower f0s than adult females (red) and children of either sex (green).
Horizontal lines indicate group means.
Each point in the figure below represents a single speaker (239
in total). As seen in the figure below, the average f0 and average FF produced
by a speaker are positively correlated.
A model predicting mean FFs from mean f0, fit to the data from
the aforementioned 239 speakers indicates that:
1) Mean f0 explains about 70% of the variance in mean FFs (and
2) Mean f0 can predict mean FFs to within an expected error of
3) A difference between two speakers of one octave of in mean
f0 is expected to be associated with a difference of about 25%
in mean FFs.